What is "Modern Art"
There is no precise definition of the term "modern art": it remains an elastic term, which can take on various meanings. This is not surprising, because we are constantly moving forward in time, and what is considered today as "modern painting" or "modern sculpture" may not be considered modern in fifty years. Even so, it is traditional to say that "modern art" refers to works produced during the approximate period of 1870 to 1970. This "modern era" followed a long period of domination inspired by Renaissance academic art , promoted by the network of European academies of fine arts. And is itself followed by "Contemporary Art" (From 1970), the most avant-garde of which is also called" Postmodern Art. "This timeline accords with the opinion of many art critics and institutions, but not all. Thus, the Tate Modern de Londres and the Musée Pompidou in Paris, for example, take 1900 as the starting point of "Modern Art." Moreover, neither they nor the Museum of Modern Art in New York distinguishes between "modernist" and "postmodernist" works: rather, they see both as phases of "modern art". Incidentally, when trying to understand the history of the arts it is important to recognize that art does not change overnight but rather reflects larger (and slower) changes in society. It also reflects the artist's perspectives. So, for example, a work of art produced as early as 1958, it could be decidedly "postmodernist" (if the artist is very avant-garde - the New Realism of Yves Klein is a good example); while another work, created by a conservative artist in 1980, could be seen as a step back in time to "modern art" rather than an example of "contemporary art". In fact, it's probably true to say that different streams of art, i.e., several sets of aesthetics, some hypermodern, some old-fashioned - can coexist at any time. Also, it should be remembered that many of these terms (like "Modern Art") are not coined until after the event, from the perspective of hindsight. What are the origins of modern art? To understand how "modern art" began, a little historical context is helpful. The 19th century was a time of significant and rapidly increasing change. Following the Industrial Revolution (circa 1760-1860), huge changes in manufacturing, transportation, and technology began to affect the way people lived, worked, and traveled across Europe and America. . Towns and cities grew and flourished as people left the earth to populate urban factories. These industry-inspired social changes have led to greater prosperity but also cramped and overcrowded living conditions for most workers. This has led to: a greater demand for urban architecture; more demand for applied art and design - see for example the Bauhaus School - and the emergence of a new class of wealthy entrepreneurs who became collectors and patrons. Many of the best art museums in the world were founded by these 19th century tycoons. In addition, two other developments had a direct effect on the fine arts of this period. First, in 1841, the American painter John Rand (1801-1873) invented the collapsible tin paint tube. Second, major advancements were made in photography , allowing artists to photograph scenes that could then be painted later in the studio. Both of these developments would greatly benefit a new style of painting known as "Impressionism", which would drastically affect the way artists paint the world around them and thus become the first major modernist art school. . The social changes of the 19th century not only influenced the artistic creation of artists, but they also prompted artists to explore new themes. Instead of slavishly following the Gender Hierarchy and settling for academic subjects involving Greek religion and mythology, interspersed with 'meaningful' portraits and landscapes - all subjects designed to uplift and educate the viewer - artists began to create art about people, places or ideas that interested him. With their new train stations and slums, cities were an obvious choice and sparked a new class of genre painting.and cityscape. The other topics were suburban villages and vacation spots served by new rail networks, which would inspire new forms of transport—landscape painting by Monet, Matisse, and others. The genre of history painting has also changed, thanks to Benjamin West (1738-1820) who painted The Death of General Wolfe (1770, National Art Gallery, Ottowa), the first "contemporary" history painting. , and to Goya (1746-1828). of which Three May 1808 (1814, Prado, Madrid) introduced an innovative language and not heroic. The 19th century also saw a number of philosophical developments which would have a significant effect on art. The growth of political thought, for example, led Courbet and others to promote a form of social consciousness Realistic painting - see also Realism to Impressionism ). In addition, the publication of The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) by Sigmund Freud popularized the notion of "subconscious mind", leading artists to explore symbolism and, later, surrealism. The new self-awareness promoted by Freud led (or at least coincided with) the emergence of German Expressionism, as artists began to express their feelings and subjective experiences.
Read on Gallerix.ru , text by Neil Collins How to Understand Modern Art (with Arthur Schopenhauer)
There is no precise definition of the term "modern art": it remains an elastic term, which can take on various meanings. This is not...